We constantly receive a high spectrum of frequencies which we consciously process and some which our ears take in but we do not consciously notice, these frequencies may still effect us. Many harsh sounds in our environment cause us to ‘tune out’ frequencies and noises so we do not listen well. We need to be


This begins very early in the Nido and Casa. For most of the exercises no material is used, we simply isolate rhythm from the rest of music, by clapping or having simple percussion instruments. The exercises can be given in any spare few minutes, in the same way singing and movement can be given. Clapping


Introduction: Sing with the children each day learning a song each week, it is important tho have variety. Have a good music player and sing along, use acoustic instruments to support you. It is possible to sing their names, to sing as a group, with clapping. Begin with rhythm early and add singing so the


Introduction: To be able to participate in movement, children must be able to choose to control their movement, they also need motor control and awareness to be able to listen and feel the music. Brain Gym exercises can be used for children who have not developed this naturally to help to connect the two hemispheres.

Scientific Experiments with Sound

Striking – water glasses Material Description: Two sets of 4 identical straight sided glasses. One set is marked in a graded fashion to indicate the amount of water needed to produce the first 4 tones of a major scale the other set has no indication. Pitcher of water Mallet Bucket Method: Pour water into the

The Story of the Grand Staff

Introduction: This is not a story of Dr Montessori, but it follows her idea that it is important to teach through stories at the Elementary level. So Kay Baker and Greg McDonald decided that there should be a Story for Music as there is no story for Music and Art. Material Description: Bells or tone

Tone Bars

A Sensorial Introduction to Tone Bars This is a very sensitive material, it is not easy to fix or replace them, they are similar to the bells but there is only one set so they cannot be paired, there is no external control only the ear. There are twenty-five tone bars, one for each tone

Notation with the Bells

Material Description: The bells A green board with the five lines (the Stave) A board to write on marked with five parallel lines Cut out G-Clef which corresponds to the green board Nomenclature cards with a picture, label and control with picture and name of the notes, Stave and G-Clef. Prerequisite: The children must know

The Bells

Sensorial Exploration of the Bells These are two sets of identical bells showing the Major scale of C. The compromise a set of eight bells on white stands, mirrored by eight bells on brown stands. These are ideally left out on a bells cabinet on a keyboard base. The white bells to kept at the

Powers of Numbers

Powers, using a base of 2 Material Description: Box for Powers with a base of two: cubes and prisms coloured yellow, white, green (small 1cm cubes for the follow up work) blank tickets pencil, paper prepared tickets for follow-up work Method: Making powers Take a unit, ‘Here we have a unit, it is all on

Squares and Cubes of Numbers

Introductory Activities These activities introduce working with the squares and cubes of numbers at Elementary. Material Description: Felt mat, short chains Method: Game 1 – shapes Form chains with each short chains, beginning with the chain of three, after forming each shape ask the child to identify each shape, displaying them in a row, later

Introduction to Music

When people sing feel free to join them because bad people do not know any songs Sound accompanies people all their lives, in individual lives and Human history from nature, the wind and water, the voices of animals, in the ‘Story of the Coming of Life’ from frogs and other animals. In modern life we

Introduction to Arithmetics

Montessori believed that Humans have Mathematical Minds (from Pascal) and that Human Minds engage in Mathematical Activities almost as an instinctual drive, as a characteristic of our species which gives us a predisposition towards mathematical thought knowledge and progress comes from accurate observation…the warp into which all of the riches of perception and imagination is

The Story of Number – The Fifth Great Story

Setting the Scene Briefly, recall the story of Communication, emphasising how the alphabet came to be written down so that people could talk to each other even when they weren’t actually there. The Story ‘Today we have another story, the Story of Number.  It’s a story from a long, long time ago.  We don’t know

Wooden Hierarchical Material

Material Description: Number Dimensions Forms Colours Coloured Lines 1 (1/2cm3) cube green none 10 (1/2cm2 x5cm) prism blue green 100 (5cm2 x ½cm) prism red blue 1,000 (5cm2) cube green red 10,000 (5cm2 x 50cm) prism blue green 100,000 (50cm2 x 5cm) prism red blue 1,000,000 (50cm3) cube green red golden bead unit, ten, hundred,

Long Multiplication

Chequer Board   Material Description: A board made up of 36 squares.  The squares are colour-coded to correspond to the categories of the decimal system, green for units, blue for tens, red for hundreds. On the base there is notation in black, right to left for the categories 1 to 100,000,000.  Up the right side there

Long Division

Racks and Tubes Material Description: Test tubes from units to millions in 7 colour-coded stands Box with green, blue, red skittles 3 division boards Squared/graph paper for recording Pencil   Notes: The quotient is always what the unit gets, this is given in the Casa in the group games. The first few examples with the

Laws of Multiplication

We begin with a single digit and then work into using more categories, when the children are familiar give laws.  The first part to the Passage to abstraction is putting in the signs, the second part involves expanding with the cards and the third using mental arithmetic, without the geometric presentation of the operation or

Multiples and Factors

In this chapter we begin with presenting the concept of multiples with the beads, then common multiples with beads and working with common multiples on paper, to extend the knowledge of factors up to one hundred.  The pegs and board are used to find the lowest common multiples and on paper the children use Charts,

Exponential notation

Powers, with a base of 2 Material Description: Box for Powers of two: cubes and prisms coloured yellow, white, green (small 1cm cubes for the follow up work) blank tickets pencil, paper prepared tickets for follow-up work Method: Making powers Take a unit, ‘Here we have a unit, it is all on its own, it

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